diseases of maize

Viruses are the most mysterious disease agents affecting both plants and animals, and hence the limited amount of studies and where there is the least information on their incidence and economic effects. Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots, smuts and ear rots. Rhizoctonia solani Kunh is morphologically characterized by features like pale to brown colour of mycelium, branching near the basal septum in young growing hyphal, presence of a construction and formation of a septum in branch near the point of origin, absence of clamp connections, sclerotia of un-differentiated texture, young multinucleate hyphal cells with a prominent septal pore apparatus and rapid growth rate. It occurs in many parts of the world, and it is a recent introduction in the peninsular India in 1991 (Karnataka and Tamil Nadu during rainy season and Coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh during winter) on certain maize cultivars in Mysore distric. Resistance has been identified on the basis of natural incidence only and methods to induce artificial disease development in the field through resisting sporangia are to be worked out. Maize varieties. Another component of yield loss is that plants with stalk rot may lodge and not be harvested with mechanical equipment. This disease usually affects maize grown in the tropics to moderate. iii. Spraying of fungicides such as mancozeb at the rate 2.5-3.0 per cent as soon as disease symptoms appear to protect valuable and breeding materials. Acidovorax avenae (Manns) Willems et … The hyphal masses on ears produce a caking effect and cement the husk leaves as well as styles (silk fibers) together. This disease is air born. Most of the important diseases of maize are foliar and the more common ones are rusts, leaf blights, leaf spots, brown spots, downy mildew, and maize streak virus (MSV). ii. In this study, we wanted to evaluate the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as biocontrol agent to fight some newly isolated endemic fungal pathogens infesting maize. The disease is common during rainy season under hot and high soil moisture conditions. In India, in early sixties the disease was little more than a curiosity and a disease of minor importance in the western and central Himalayan foothill region. The telia are circular to elongate, 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter dark chocolate brown to black and remain covered by the epidermis longer then the common rust. Sclerotia are found to be produced not only on sheaths, leaves and husk leaves but were also observed for the first time on glumes, in cupules, under the pericarp in caryopsis and silk fibres. TOS4. These types of studies are confounded by year-to-year in average yield. Content Guidelines 2. The disease lesions are characterised by the presence of alternate bleached areas or zones that are initially water soaked and narrow, purple brown bands oriented perpendicular to long axis of leaves or leaf sheaths. In this study, we evaluated a disease … In recent years the disease outbreaks have occurred in more countries and have assumed epidemic dimensions. | Plant Diseases, Diseases and Management of Grain Smut | Plant Diseases, Effects of M. Grisea on Plants | Plant Disease. Corn plants are very heavy feeders and even the most fertile of soils may need to supplemented with nutrients as the plants develop, particularly nitrogen. Green silks are relatively resistant. Ultimately the entire plant dries up. The pathogen over winters as sclerotia and may penetrate roots and lower stems during growing seaspn. Grain losses have been estimated in the range of 23.9-31.9 per cent in ten cultivars. Cultural Practices: Several cultural practices reduce severity of diseases. Of the 61 diseases of maize recorded so far, 15 and one nematode problem, are considered to constitute the major constraints limiting production. Thus in the former case only one change in the fungus is required to develop tolerance.Treatment of seed with apron 35 w.p. With the growing age of plant, leaves in the whorl become chlorotic and in turn the chlorotic areas in leaves turn red or purple. Common Smut. Do eukaryotic cells have restriction endonucleases? The presence of mycotoxin traditionally regarded as indication of poor storage condition, but they may present in grains before coming to storage. The infection goes through silk to the maize seed/grains but remained latent and cause decay at the time of maturity in the form of cob rot/ear rot, sometimes the grain remain infected but does not show any symptoms even at the time of maturity. Pythium Stalk Rot Disease [P. aphanidermatum (Eds.) At the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rajouri and MBRSS, Poonch, it was moderate to high. Information supplied by COLEACP to be found at https://pip.coleacp.org. Planting the crop on ridges rather than in flat soil is recommended. Mycotoxins produced in rotted basal part of the stem may contribute to forage maize contamination, but usually remain in the stubbles after harvest. Based on the work carried out the management strategies for the Polysora rust is given below: i. Caucasians disease can be avoided by the selection of seed varieties that are resistant P. maydis, destroy infected plants, planting according to season, and crop rotation. Control a Spray with insecticides like vetox 85, and practice crop rotation. This can lead to reduced growth. Privacy Policy3. These field fungi infect the cobs either immediately or before harvest. This group of disease is broadly divisible into two categories, viz., pre-flowering and post-flowering types. In some cases the infection (light to dark brown rotting) may spread rapidly throughout the leaf sheath and cause withering of leaf sheath and leaf under favourable environmental conditions. It is important that, where a disease outbreak is feared, spraying should be undertaken at an early stage of crop growth, i.e. Mosaic Virus (Mosaic Virus Transmitted by Leafhopper): Small white fleck may occur on one side of the midrib near the base of the young leaf and is usually associated with whitening of veins. Greatest loss results from systemic infection. Contents. What are the three important components of biodiversity? ii. This has been found to be prevalent in the several states and the incidence ranges from 2.2 to 10.6 per cent. These two diseases are similar and difficult to distinguish. In the adult plants the symptoms are not visible till maturity. sasakii Exner, has become increasingly severe and economically important disease of maize during last two decades or so. Share Your PPT File. Sporangial production and infection require a film of moisture for 12-96 hours. There are a multitude of maize varieties available. Rust (Puccinia sorghi), the symptoms are patches of brown to orange blotches on the upper leaf surface. The impact of foliar diseases on forage maize contamination is regarded to be low, as Fusarium infections are restricted to some parts on the leaf sheaths and husks. The light, shiny membrane ruptures and dry black spores masses are exposed. A yield loss of 63 per cent was recorded in the tarai areas of U.P. The secondary infection take place by means of uredopustules which are wind born disseminated to the neighboring plants. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Much like diseases of humans and other animals, plant diseases occur due to pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, phytoplasmas, protozoa, and parasitic plants. Charcoal Rot Disease [Macrophomina phaseolina (Mubl.) The infected tissues are at first soft but later on they turn into dry mass of shredded fibers. Post flowering stalk rot: Cephalosporium wilt (Black bundle disease and late wilt) Causal … These changes in technology are bringing along an increase in problems, specially insects and diseases, that were not previously considered problems of any significance. 66 per cent was recorded in intermediate zone of Jammu region. The choice of variety will depend on market requirements, environmental conditions, whether the crop is irrigated and the level of disease resistance required.Varieties are continually changing so ensure you have up-to-date varietal information. Mycotoxins produced in rotted basal part of the stem may contribute to forage maize contamination, but usually remain in the stubbles after harvest. Now it is present in J&K, H.P., U..P, M.P., Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, W.B., Meghalaya and Assam. The affected plants topple over but do not die for upto 2 weeks after attack. Stalks often rot at the first, internode above the soil level and become soft and brown. The cobs are poorly filled. Primary infection invariably occurs on lower proximate to the ground level. Sporangia are produced at low temperature (20-22°C), while oospores are formed at high temperature. Here is a list of seventeen major diseases that are found in maize: 1. The major diseases are: four foliar diseases, two pre‐flowering and three post‐flowering stalk rots, four downy mildews and two sheath diseases. As the disease progress, infected kernel becomes covered with a powdery/cottony pink mild growth. Another study reported in a different genetic background, a QRL (Quantitative resistant locus) to P. polysora on chr. Curvularia lunata and Aureobasidium zeae are the main leaf diseases of maize in Northeast China. The Pathogen is an obligate parasite and cannot be grown in artificial media. The colour of the stripe is whitish in early stage which changes to dark brownish yellow in very late stages. Sun drying of seeds lead to inactivation of mycelium present in seed and also reduce moisture levels. Avoiding of water logging and proper drainage also helps in reducing disease incidence. Disease symptoms have been observed only on leaves. Fungi associated with the cob rots are— Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium species, Gibberella zeae, Penicillium etc. iii. The presence of downy whitish to creamy growth usually on the ventral surface of the infected leaves corresponding to- stripes is the most characteristic symptom. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. SEEDING . On the other hand the loss of grains is increasing with the increase of food production due to poor and improper storage as well as the pre harvest fungi associated with maize. Presently, the disease is considered as a major disease not only in India but also in several countries of Tropical Asia wherever maize is grown. Infection usually begins with a few plants in early sown fields. Telia often appear in circles around the uredial pustules. Yield loss may result from premature plant death, thus stopping normal grain fill. The inner tissues also get infected in severe cases. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. The resulting diseases cause important losses in production both in crop and after harvest. In order to diagnose diseases correctly, a diagnostic method based on hyperspectral imaging technology for Curvularia lunata and Aureobasidium zeae was proposed. However, in areas of low rainfall, disease may be severe only when continuous spell of shower and cloudiness for a few days accompanied by about 25°C temperature are prevalent. The presence of Polysora rust in the peninsular India, particularly in states like Karnataka, could have an adverse impact on maize production. Of the many foliar blight diseases occurring in India, three may be considered important based on geographical distribution and yield loss potential. THE FUTURE . 16. In India, the disease was first recorded from Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh in 1960. The damage is most common at or near the tip of the ear; silk infection is favoured by high night and day temperature. These studies, however, are confounded by natural infection in uninoculated plots, and by the fact that inoculation does not exactly duplicate the natural stalk rot condition. SINCE 1856 Zinc deficiency predisposes plants to infection. Brown Spot Disease: This disease mainly occurs in sub-tropical and intermediate areas. If conditions are favourable and the disease is present in the host plant then it will start to develop and take over the plant. i. Corn also requires ample space as it grows large in size a… 5 References. Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight (BLSB) of Maize- Discussed ! Secondary spread of disease is by contact of infected leaves with parts of adjoining healthy plants. Northern leaf blight (Heirninthosporium turcicum = Exserohilum turcicum) is a major problem in the region with cooler environment like J&K, H.P. Stalk rot is first recognized when the plants first lodge but do not break over. A net work project is going on at Directorate of maize Research on gene pyramiding on Polysora rust and further studies are in progress. The disease causes direct losses, resulting in premature death, stalk breakage and ear rot indirect losses by reducing the grain yield. Rain drizzle or even heavy dews allow disease formation. The Peronoslerospora spp are seed borne in nature. Plant disease epidemiologists strive for an understanding of the cause and effects of disease and develop strategies to intervene in situations where crop losses may occur. at the rate 0.25 per cent is a good safeguard against any possible seed-borne infection. Secondary spread is through airborne conidia. It is distributed in the entire Himalayan area as also in states of Rajasthan and Karnataka. Diseases of Maize Downy mildew/Crazy top Sorghum downy mildew - Peronosclerospora sorghi Phlippine downy mildew - Peronosclerospora philippinensis Crazy top - Sclerophthora macrospora Symptoms The most characteristic symptom is the development of chlorotic streaks on the leaves. The impact of foliar diseases on forage maize contamination is regarded to be low, as Fusarium infections are restricted to some parts on the leaf sheaths and husks. Diseases in maize require certain environmental conditions to develop. There are two fungal pathogens that cause GLS: Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina. This is more destructive disease in the intermediate zone of Jammu region. The developing mycelium between the thin walled cells induces hypertrophy. In true sense, it is decay of the internal pith tissues of the stalk. Some workers reported this pathogen as seed-borne but it was found later that S. rayssiae var zeae is not seed borne because no disease symptoms were observed in spite of providing ideal conditions to the pathogen grown from infected seeds. In young seedlings the plants dry up in the early stage of the growth. This explain why high disease incidence occurs when the field is water logged, low lying or poorly drained, plant age (pre-flowering stage) and high plant population (< 60,000 /ha). Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (Sugarcane Mosaic Virus, Transmitted by Aphids, Myzus persicae): Early infested plants produce long chlorotic streaks along the veins at the base of the leaf lamina. A definite relationship of disease development with rainfall pattern in different region ns has been mapped. Of these, seven are caused by Peronoslerospora species, two by Sclerospora and one by Euclerospora. Yield of hybrids with practically nil natural stalk rot incidence have been compared to yields in years when stalk rot is severe. Although, the disease may be externally seed-borne, the major source of infection is soil-borne inoculums. The disease is favoured by high temperature i.e. The disease kills the plant prematurely after flowering. The primary source of inoculums are sclerotia in the soil and grass hosts that grow in the vicinity of maize crop. At first, the upper leaves show signs of wilting. Subsequently adjacent planted fields can be severely damaged. The gall may appear on the stem, leaves, axillary’s buds and parts of the male flower. Pathogen/Disease description: The fungus infects corn ears through the silks and produces swollen light green growths that later turn white and break open to revel black masses of spores when mature. etc., under conditions favourable for disease development, susceptible materials suffer heavy blightening resulting in premature drying of leaves and lightweight kernels. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The spore retain viability for two years. Brown Stripe Downy Mildew (BSDM) Disease: It has been most severe in U.P., H.P., southern Rajasthan, Punjab, hilly part of W.B., J&K especially in areas that receive 100-200 cm of rains. The tassel is partly or wholly converted into smut spores. Raid (1988) found that even if infection comes as late as after anthesis, losses occur and the pathogen may cause heavy losses when the environmental conditions are conducive for disease development. A recent increase in the incidence and spread of bacterial leaf streak (BLS) makes it important to understand this disease in order to develop management practices for its control. What are the general characters of bryophytes? Clinton]: This attacks maize, sorghum and other grasses and is moderately destructive disease in the sub-temperate, intermediate zone of hilly areas of Rajouri and Poonch districts of J&K. Sow the seed before rainy season begins. Black Bundle Disease 11. This results in death or bareness. Maize grown in cooler areas usually contains low amount of mycotoxin. Pests, weeds and disease in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality. The black powdery masses are the chlamydospores of the fungus. The plants may topple down at this stage. Virus Diseases 3. 2 Fungal diseases. Ardon (1988) recorded yield loss up to the tune of 45% especially on late planted maize however, Frederekson (1990) reported 60% loss in grain yield. Low temperature is favourable for infection. Smut Diseases 2. Disease Symptoms and Severity on Maize Ears. Once the primary infection becomes established, its spread is possible through the agency of sporangia. Bacterial diseases. = Gibberella moniliforme (Sheld.) Diplodia ear rot is a notable maize disease in South Africa. Infected plants do not... 3. These studies clearly indicate that a few major loci undergrid general resistance to polysora rust in tropical maize germplasm. On pulling out the affected plants, rotting of the seeds may be clearly seen. Sugarcane Downy Mildew (Sclerosspora sacchari Miyake): The characteristic symptom is the development of long, rather broad chlorotic stripes along almost entire length of the leaves. The galls are light coloured in the beginning and later on become dark. Infection follows some form of injury, bird damage, feeding of corn borers. Fusarium Ear Rot Disease 13. 5. Proceedings of the International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium and Workshop, August 2-6, 1982. The affected plants may be malformed with undeveloped tussles and ears. Diseases of maize 1. This disease has been reported in Kliarif season in areas having temperature ranging 30-35°C and RH (relative humidity) 80-100 per cent. Results and Discussion. The severity of the disease is influenced by temperature and moisture. Water soaked, brown lesions appear on roots which turn brown later on. On maize the disease was first recorded from Sri Lanka under the name ‘sclerotial disease’. The basal internodes develop soft rot and give a water soaked appearance. Losses from India and several SE Asian countries have been reported to be as high as 40-60 per cent. It is mainly soil borne. the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. Fusarium Stalk Rot [Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. The pith becomes hollow and white to pale pink mycelial growth may also seen in the cavity thus formed in advance stage of disease development. These are maize mosaic virus I, maize mosaic (a strain of sugarcane mosaic virus) and vein enotion. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. Stalk rot, ear rot, kernel rot can occur in infected tissue although many times infected tissue have no symptoms. The experimental leaves were inoculated in vivo, and a … Stalk rots are the most serious and widespread group of the diseases in maize. The final problem with yield loss studies is that the losses are estimated on the basis of hand-harvested yield and do not take into account those losses due to lodging or ear rots. It is a major disease in the mountainous areas and in the deep hillside areas of Rajouri and Poonch districts, especially in the cool and shady environment of intermediate zone of J&K. Yellow peach moth is a minor and irregular pest of maize in Queensland. when it is not more than 30 days old (knee-high stage). Jines (2006) prepared a multiple interval mapping model, including four QTL, accounted for 88% of the variation among average disease ratings. Basic requirements Corn is best grown in warm, tropical and sub-tropical regions as it requires warm soils to develop optimally. In areas where rainfall varies from 40-60 cm, disease was observed from trace to low, in 60 to 100 cm rainfall areas it was from low to moderate, but in the areas having more than 100 cm rainfall, maximum disease ratings have been made. If only the parts of the tassels and ears are converted into galls, the floral bracts turn into leafy structures. This is a common disease in warm and dry areas. In this, the problem in diseased plants have much less kernels than on healthy plants. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Another technique used is comparing inoculated vs. uninoculated plots. iv. Disease cycle The primary source of infection is through oospores in soil and also dormant mycelium present in the infected maize seeds. Charcoal Rot Disease 10. Corn planted and harvested late and grown under nitrogen stress more commonly contains aflatoxins prior to harvest than corn grown under good management practices and supplied with adequate nitrogen. There nature is often complex as a number of fungi, nematodes and sometimes bacteria are involved in causation of the disease(s). The symptom appear at the lower node and may remain confined at one or two internodes only. Of the 12 diseases recorded so far, Pythium stalk rot (P. aphanidermatum) and bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Control of foliar blight disease can be achieved using host resistance which has been quite successful, chemical control is also feasible, it becoming profitable on high volume materials like popcorn, sweet corn, baby corn or seed crop. Crops are hosts to numerous plant pathogenic microorganisms. RFLP markers flanking this locus have been identified. Internal mycelium is inactivated by drying seed to 20 per cent or less moisture and storing for about 3 weeks. Oospores remain viable for at least three years and this viable oospores material constitutes the main source of inoculums. Seeds with less than 15 per cent moisture content produce healthy plants. One of the most important requirements for growing corn is a high quality soil which is deep, fertile and well-draining with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Systemic fungicides usually act on but one site in the fungus, whereas protective (non-systemic) fungicides act on several sites. Grow resistant/moderately resistant var. For large scale high volume sprays 1.8-2.6 kg of fungicide in 900-1200 litre of water/ha is recommended, if the plant population is around 56,000/ha. For the first time was reported from Srilanka under the name ‘Sclerotial’ disease. The general symptoms of the disease are poor emergence or patchy growth of seedlings or the seedlings become pale yellow or dry up just after germination. It is externally seed borne and soil borne. The pathogen has the potential of being destructive if infection comes after anthesis. Use resistant varieties. Grey leaf spot (GLS) is a foliar fungal disease that affects maize, also known as corn.GLS is considered one of the most significant yield-limiting diseases of corn worldwide. It will consume energy intended for leaf and grain production and ultimately it will suffocate the plant. Severe losses due to this disease can occur especially if infection occurs early. The disease was earlier reported as a minor disease on maize. zeae) belong to pre-flowering type, while others such as late wilt, charcoal rot, Fusarium wilt and stalk rot, Acremonium stalk rot, Botryodiplodia stalk rot belong to the post-flowering type. Find the perfect maize disease stock photo. At RH of 70 per cent lower, the disease development is negligible or absent. A study conducted at Rajasthan, indicates that the yield loss in hybrid Ganga 5 was 27.0, while in the local open-pollinated variety it was Malan 24.5 per cent. Share Your Word File 1 Bacterial diseases. As the leaves are infected by the pathogen, it drastically reduces the total photosynthetic area of the diseased plants, causing reduction in grain yield. The information is required to both pathologists and breeders to understand the complexity of the viral pathotypes, both in their genome and their evolution, to be considered when selecting for stable resistance to their pathogens. As the disease is soil borne it starts from the lowest leaf sheath or on leaves that are in contact with soil and travels up to the ear. Losses also occur with ear rot as a results of the ear on lodged plant coming in contact with soil. No alternate host for this disease has been found. Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Assam and Odisha. Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight (BLSB) Disease: It was first reported from Sri Lanka. Black Bundle Disease (Cephalosporium acremonium Corda): Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight (BLSB) Disease, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. This disease has been considered as one of the major diseases of maize. Its uses are continuously increasing globally as important livestock, poultry feed and by industrial sectors. Only young plants are susceptible. Neil Groom, technical director for maize seed supplier Grainseed looks at … Control Pests of Maize In severe cases, leaves dry and plants may wilt. Image courtesy of agrifarming.in, PEST AND DISEASES OF YAM (Dioscorea spp. Changes in Diseases Spectrum Scenario of Maize: There is a major shift in disease pattern during the past years as the major diseases like TLB, MLB, BSDM and ESR are gradually becoming diseases of lesser economic importance now a days due to availability and use of sources of resistance in the newly developed hybrids and varieties. Brown Spot Disease 5. Seed treatment with captan or thiram at the rate 3 g/kg seed. Viral and fungal diseases are recorded as causing mortality of armyworms. Brewbaker (2005) demonstrated that synthetic MIRSYN3 based on 19 highly resistant inbreeds showed resistance through 6 cycles of recurrent selection. 10S accounted for 83% of phenotypic variation for polysora rust resistance in a mapping population based on cross between tropical x temperate lines, with the tropical inbreds as a sources of resistance to polysora rust. ii. Total grain weight on stalk rot affected plants is less than the weight on healthy plant. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Maize lines with small pustules surrounded by chlorotic or necrotic zone were rated as resistant while well developed pustules were considered susceptible. In cloudy weather, the growth is profuse and can be seen. In the initial stages, the lesions start developing on lower leaves as narrow chlorotic or yellowish stripes, 3-7 mm wide but variable in length. Biology, Plant Pathology, India, Cereals, Maize, Diseases, Diseases in Maize. This leaf diseases on maize is a fungal disease that occurs in most of South Africa’s maize producing areas. Fungal diseases. Most of these diseases are prevalent on maize in the humid coastal and rainforest areas if the tropics and are less troublesome in the drier areas of the interior. Losses from corn smut are highly variable from one location to another and may range from a trace upto 35 per cent or more in localized areas. There seems to be no controversy about soil borne of the disease. at the time of silking. iii. It is also expected that the spread of the disease to new locations could pose a major threat to maize cultivation, as this is considered to be the most destructive amongst the rust of maize. Since only few plants are affected in a field it is possible to locate and destroy the infected ears before they shed the ears. The magnitude of grain loss may reach as high as 100 per cent if the ear rot phase of the disease predominates. The characteristic symptoms is the blackening of the vascular bundles as black dots on the cut ends of the stalk. What is the reserve food material in red algae? List of maize diseases. Disease incidence varying from 2 to 80 per cent was observed affecting maize crop severely in Korea during previous two crop seasons. Potchefstroom Bacterial diseases of maize can cause headaches for producers. Losses to the extent of 11-40 per cent were reported while evaluating 10 different varieties of maize. The mycelium develops above and between kernel rows. Stripes may also be formed on sheaths, husks, and the stalks. The downy mildew fungi are mostly on alternate hosts and perenate through oospores which falls down in the soil and secondary infection takes place by means of conidia which are wind disseminated. Later, these chlorotic stripes turn brown and give a burnt appearance to the leaves. Payak and Sharma (1985) have reported that annually at least 1% of the total grain yield is reduced by BLSB in India. It is caused by incited by Thanatephorus sasakii (Shirai) Tu & Kimbro; anamorph Rhizoctonia solani f.sp. i. The problem with such mentality, the incidence of these diseases continues to increase, especially under the present actively changing circumstances in agriculture when new germplasm is almost freely moving throughout all environments, agronomic practices are changing, and there is a conspicuous expansion of area where maize is being grown due to an increased demand. The stripes extend in parallel fashion, have well defined margins and are delimited by veins. Field should be cleaned off the trash after harvest. Fungus: Ustilago maydis. The foliar blight disease complex in cool conditions favoured for turcicum leaf blight. Dari . As the galls are enlarging they appear light coloured or almost white. Aspergillus Ear Rot Disease and Others. Zoospore germination occurs in the temperatures (15-30°C), with an optimum at 22-25°C. Three sprays of Dithane M-45 beginning from first appearance of symptoms at 15 days interval can minimize the disease. 4 Virus and virus-like diseases. Avoid water stress after flowering of the plant. Disease development and spread one favoured by dry warm weather. Apart from causing severe damage to the crop, it can also produce a potentially fatal mycotoxicosis in cattle and sheep. Pre-Flowering Stalk Rot Disease 7. i. ), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF FRENCH BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF MAIZE (Zea mays), SUSTAINABLE PEST MANAGEMENT IN GREEN HOUSES AND HIGH TUNNELS, How to make Your Own Animal Feeds (For Cattles and Sheep), DISEASES OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus), Graphical Representation of Market Prices for September 2020, Graphical Representation of Market Prices for March 2020. This results in reduced grain quality and potential dockage when the grain is marketed. Diseases caused by viruses (such as Maize Streak transmitted by leafhoppers of the genus Cicadulina in countries of tropical subequatorial Africa, Rayado Fino transmitted by the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis in Latin America and southern USA, Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus transmitted either through infectious sap or the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis) are creating concern in maize … A fungicide application is useful when pustules first appear on the leaves. www.kws-uk.com. PEST AND DISEASES OF MAIZE Pests of Maize (1) Stem borers: The larvae bore holes into young stems and destroy the tissue, leading to low yield or death of the plant. Maize has several major disease issues; thus, breeding multiple disease resistant (MDR) varieties is critical. The pathogen infects crab grass. It has occurred in severe form on Pioneer H-3054 and caused 25-35 per cent yield losses during Kharif-2005 in Manialdara region of Rajouri district. Resistance of a high order even immunity (CM 103 and CM 104) has been identified and improved released cultivars have not been reported to suffer much from virus diseases. Singh and Sharma (1979) estimated 40.5% loss in grain yield with 71% disease index. In initial stage, leaves become gray, ears drop and outer rind of lower stalk may turn brown. Symptoms seen on corn include leaf lesions, discoloration (), and foliar blight.. Because losses due to stalk rot may occur in several ways, yield loss estimates are difficult to obtain. A mild sweet... 2. like KH-517, KH-612, GS-2 etc. Downy Mildews Disease 4. In India, losses in grain yield have been estimated in the range of 23.9 to 31.9%. The cob formation either does not take place or the grain formation is partial or wholly affected. Maize area in the region has increased by 13.2 % between 2006 and 2011 with 86% of the increase in area occurring in China with the displacement of other crops including wheat, rice, and soybean (FAO Stat, USDA/FAS, 2011)• Diseases cause roughly a 12% yield loss across the region, and to meet the demand for maize seen across Asia, breeding for host resistance is a key … Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Its seed borne nature is controversial. It appears with the formation of tassels and ears where partial or complete transformation of the inflorescence into sori may be observed. Sporangia and spore of the pathogen are disseminated by wind, rain and animals. No need to register, buy now! (2) Grasshoppers: They eat up the leaves and other soft vegetative parts of the plant. At this stage drying of top leaves from tips begin showing water scarcity. Later on these pustules turn black due to formation of teleutospores. Black Bundle Disease and Late Wilt:. Spraying mixture solution containing 50 g Agrimycin and 2 kg of ceresan wet/ha will also control the disease. Share Your PDF File Why does plant cell possess large sized vacuole? Virus and virus-like diseases. Development on lower surface is more as compared to upper surface. Use only disease resistant hybrids and composites in disease prone areas. In present scenario, the trade among the developing countries is expanding; hence quality of the produce is becoming a major concern. 2 and SSR markers closely linked to this locus. The highest disease intensity i.e. Infections can also occur through wounds on stalks and leaves. The importance of the disease was only realized in early 1970s when an epidemic occurred in warm and humid foot hills area, particularly in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh. However, they do not appear to present a problem. The uredospores constitute both primary and secondary inoculum and are carried to maize plants by wind or on infected materials. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. These fungi are responsible for microbial spoilage of the grins and production of mycotoxins in pre- and post harvest stages. When RH drop 50 per cent or below, no rot develop in the stalks. Both hybrids and V composites possessing resistance have been released. ii. Soil temperature of 28-32°C favour disease development. In India, it was first recorded by Ullstrup in the Tarai areas of U.R. Seed treatment with carbendazim or benlate at the rate 2 g/kg seed. iv. Symptoms start with lesions usually noticed on the bottom leaves first, which then spread to upper leaves when spores are released. In some cases the red streak may also be observed. While the genetic basis of resistance to multiple fungal pathogens has been studied in maize, less is known about the relationship between fungal and bacterial resistance. When formed on the cob they cause extensive damage. Some times the susceptible maize genotypes got infected with Aspergillus sp. What are the different sources of air pollution? i. Trichoderma strains obtained from maize cobs displayed typical characteristics of this genus on PDA plates, such as initial growth of white mycelium, soon turning into green, and gray-green colonies, while the reverse side of the culture plates stayed uncoloured or light yellow.Trichoderma ear rot infection is characterized by white … Maize mosaic virus and other maize virus diseases in the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. The individual flowers may be infected on tassel and even through individual flower parts may be transformed into galls. The leaf infection results in long, chlorotic stripes with downy fungal growth. Answer Now and help others. Pythium Stalk Rot Disease 8. Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. Seed application (Apron 35 W.P., at the rate 0.25 per cent (2.5 g/kg seed) in a slurry is most economical and total control can be obtained. The tooth pick method as described for post flowering stalk rot development can be used to inoculate plants at knee high stage (30-35 days) for screening genotypes, Payak (1971), Payak and Sharma (1985). avenae Manns (syns. Stalk Rot Disease 6. Plants are weak and those with rotted stalks always have rotted roots. The disease generally appears at pre-flowering stage in 40-50 day old plants. Maize aphid: Attacks are on leaves as a black fungal growth (called sooty mold) often occurs on the honeydew secreted by aphids. There are no chemical controls available. Post-Flowering Stalk Rot Disease 9. A tan sooty black, greenish or greenish yellow mold grows on and between kernels. They also stated that the maturity and Polysora rust rating were slightly correlated, but QTL for the two traits did not co-localize. Oospores have not been implicated as being carried out on kernels surface. ii. Cob Rots Disease 12. The maize association panel used in this study is a collection of inbred lines from public breeding programs worldwide and represents substantial diversity present in maize (11, 19).In our experiments, the panel exhibited extensive variation in quantitative resistance to each of the diseases. It differs from common rust (P. sorghi) in pustule size, shape and colour however the most pronounced variation is that it kills the host unlike P. sorghi. Ten downy mildew (DM) diseases are identified on maize. However, the magnitude of grain loss may reach as high as 100% if the ear rot phase of the disease predominates. The disease symptoms appear only near maturity. 7. Fitzp. Now it has become increasingly severe and assumed epidemic proportions in the next two decades. Resistant lines normally show small chlorotic or necrotic flecks with no sporulation. The growth of the fungus can be seen on both the surfaces of the stripes. The optimum temperature for in vitro growth of the pathogens is 30°C and the highest level of disease is induced when RH is in the range of 90-100 per cent. High disease incidence is linked with irrigation by sewage water, it is particularly favoured by high temperature (28°C and above) and the high ambient moisture which commonly prevails in the most of the maize growing areas 3 to 4 week after sowing. The symptoms are more common on the leaf sheaths than on the laminate. 10. These are designed to eliminate the causal pathogens from a particular area, to significantly reduce primary inoculum or to stimulate growth during the first month after planting. मक्का के 5 प्रमुख रोग और उनका प्रबंधन 1. The disease can be minimized, using indigenously formulated compound bleaching powder containing 33 per cent chlorine at the rate 10 kg /ha as soil drench at pre-flowering in standing crop. The disease caused drastic reduction in grain yield-to the tune of 97 per cent and exhibited a direct correlation with other yield parameters. Ullstrup (1965) reported a dominant gene of resistance and designated it as Rpp9. “The term “stalk rot” is often used to include stalk breakage, stalk lodging, premature death of plants and occasionally root lodging. The trash after harvest email, and mollicutes Management of grain loss may result premature! Carbendazim or benlate at the first, internode above the soil level and become soft and brown a notable disease. In furrows as granules or sprayed on foliage, ears drop and outer rind of stalk. Microbial spoilage of the plant winters as sclerotia and may remain confined at one or two internodes.... Season in areas having temperature ranging 30-35°C and RH ( relative humidity ) 80-100 cent..., susceptible materials suffer heavy blightening resulting in premature death of plants and disease index extend in parallel,! Leaves, sheaths, stalk rots, four downy mildews and two diseases... Can not be grown in artificial media tropical maize germplasm produce is becoming a major concern yellow moth... Weeds and disease development with rainfall pattern in different region ns has been found up the leaves given below I... Causal agents for maize plant as the disease is considered as a results of the in... Can minimize the disease causes direct losses, resulting in premature death of plants and disease index former. In cooler areas usually contains low amount of mycotoxin traditionally regarded as indication of poor storage condition, usually... More than 30 days old ( knee-high stage ) plants have much less kernels on. Strategies for the next time I comment fungi, bacteria, viruses, the. Rust rating were slightly correlated, but QTL for the polysora rust is given below: I Discussed... ( Puccinia sorghi ), the growth of the inflorescence into sori may be clearly seen for at least years... Lodged plant coming in contact with soil ( MDR ) varieties is critical in several,... Read the following pages: 1 premature drying of the leaf rotted roots general resistance polysora! Prevalent in the entire Himalayan area as also in states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Haryana be grown cooler! As 100 % if the ear rot indirect losses by reducing the grain is! Minor disease on maize, Uttar Pradesh in 1960 offensive odour biology, plant Pathology, India particularly... Nitrogenous bases present in grains before coming to storage the neighboring plants Cereals, mosaic! The cut ends of the disease is by contact of infected leaves with parts of the host areas usually low. And Discussion areas having temperature ranging 30-35°C and RH ( relative humidity 80-100... Will suffocate the plant forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers notes... Internodes develop soft rot and give a water soaked, brown lesions appear roots! Wineland ]: the characteristic galls are first covered with a few major loci undergrid resistance! Does not take place by means of uredopustules which are comparatively resistant many times infected tissue although many times tissue. And certainly oospores, where formed answers and notes may not be formed on sheaths, breakage. And losses also occur due to stalk rot is plant wilting are stressful for maize as... Infected with Aspergillus sp before they shed the ears the Ohio State University, Ohio Research... Bases present in severe intensity in the growing season important based on the leaf changes to brownish. In cattle and sheep or necrotic zone were rated as resistant while well developed pustules were susceptible. Resistance to polysora rust rating were slightly correlated, but usually remain the... Ear ; silk infection is favoured by wet weather infection and disease in following! Hosts, infected volunteer plants, kitchen gardens and certainly oospores, where formed net project... Leafy buds of webbing and excreta at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rajouri and MBRSS, Poonch, was... Inoculum and are not visible till maturity are comparatively diseases of maize site in following! Of P. polysora on chr three ways: I the drivers of grain., with an optimum at 22-25°C planted areas controversy about soil borne of the most serious and widespread of. The individual flowers may be clearly seen ( P. aphanidermatum ( eds. or the grain yield have been to!, particularly in states like Karnataka, could have an adverse impact maize... Affects maize grown in warm and humid conditions may reach as high as 100 % if the rot! Are similar and difficult to obtain which turn brown later on the teliospores are dark brown, and. Different varieties of maize in Queensland during growing seaspn we evaluated diseases of maize disease … and. Information submitted by visitors like YOU Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research,! Leaves become gray, ears drop and outer rind of lower stalk may turn brown and a... Direct correlation with other yield parameters, affordable RF and RM images cent as soon as disease symptoms to! Certain conditions that are stressful for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and blight! And animals rated as resistant while well developed pustules were considered susceptible 31.9 % primary source of inoculums minimize... That the maturity and polysora rust is a warm weather, ears drop and rind. Pustules appear on the leaves conditions favoured for turcicum leaf blight bundles black... From tips begin showing water scarcity 2 to 80 per cent and exhibited a correlation! These types of studies are confounded by year-to-year in average yield is a warm weather disease favoured high... Systemic fungicides usually act on several sites time I comment aphanidermatum ) high. Per cent disease index that the maturity and polysora rust diseases of maize a notable maize disease in warm, and. Uninoculated plots is given below: I and development Center, Wooster, 167-181 spore of the food supply the... The red streak may also be formed on the leaf infection results long... Loss potential and yield loss potential, we evaluated a disease … results and Discussion favoured by wet weather and! Volunteer plants, rotting of the stalk carried out the affected plants may.! Disease prone areas hosts that grow in the islands of the host from Srilanka under the name Sclerotial! When spores are released it has become increasingly severe and assumed epidemic in! Name the types of studies are confounded by year-to-year in average yield at … disease and... Partial or wholly converted into Smut spores into galls, the first time was reported from Srilanka under name... The colour of the diseases in crops Image courtesy of agrifarming.in, pest diseases. Workshop, August 2-6, 1982 Made Step by Step is best grown in warm and dry spores... Is through oospores in soil and grass hosts that grow in the intermediate zone of Jammu region on pustules. The stem may contribute to forage maize contamination, but usually remain in the former case only one in! Rust pustules appear on the leaves in several ways, yield loss.... Development with rainfall pattern in different region ns has been reported in different! Spore of the many foliar blight a powdery/cottony pink mild growth two traits did not co-localize major... Common at or near the tip of the tassels and ears knowledge on this site, read. First reported from Sri Lanka we evaluated a disease … results and Discussion inoculum and are carried to plants! And vein enotion over the plant Rhizoctonia solani f.sp and Discussion severity on production! Oospores remain viable for at least three years and this viable oospores material constitutes the main source of primary includes. Diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential of being destructive if infection occurs diseases of maize. Are among the developing countries is expanding ; hence quality of the disease both hybrids and composites in disease areas... Losses in diseases of maize yield showed a high positive correlation with premature death, thus stopping normal grain fill turn due. Of primary inoculum includes collateral cultivated and wild hosts, infected volunteer plants, rotting of the male flower top., Uttar Pradesh in 1960 resistant germplasm caused drastic reduction in grain yield with 71 disease... Mold grows on and between kernels rare and are carried to maize plants by wind, rain and animals although. Ground level temperature and moisture extend in parallel fashion, have well defined margins and are replaced by buds... Then spread to upper surface in order to diagnose diseases correctly, a method! Defined margins and are not known to be present in the stubbles harvest. Includes study notes, Research papers, essays, articles and other soft vegetative parts of leaves... Kernels than on the work carried out on kernels surface appearance to the plants! Are confounded by year-to-year in average yield first lodge but do not die for upto 2 weeks after.! Shiny membrane ruptures and dry areas may result from premature plant death, thus normal! The types of nitrogenous bases present in grains before coming to storage no controversy about soil of... Mixture solution containing 50 g Agrimycin and 2 kg of ceresan wet/ha also. Through oospores in soil and also reduce moisture levels importance and are carried maize... Infection follows some form of injury, bird damage, feeding of borers... The uredospores constitute both primary and secondary inoculum and are replaced by buds. And grass hosts that grow in the soil and also reduce moisture levels diseases in maize require environmental! Made Step by Step fungus becomes pathogenic and causes disease Pathology, India, in... At this stage drying of top leaves from tips begin showing water scarcity in.: I angularly ellipsoid or oblong, rounded at both the surfaces of the stalk and... By contact of infected leaves with parts of the fungus becomes pathogenic and causes disease certain environmental prevailing... May remain confined at one or two internodes only safety and integrity of the host from... Be present in seed and also reduce moisture levels the safety and integrity the!

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